The famine in Israel was deep enough that farmers are going into debt and some are requiring extreme amounts of collateral to cover their debts. Nehemiah is so concerned that he demands that all debt collections stop and the payments are reversed.
As the building of the wall comes to a close, Sanballat, through his agents, tries to convince Nehemiah to discuss Nehemiah and Judah's role in the area, but Nehemiah saw that it was a trick to derail his work. Nehemiah goes to meet with Shemaiah, who was homebound, Shemaiah suggests that they go to the temple to discuss, but Nehemiah knows that they want to make it seem as though he is seeking sanctuary, and refuses.
The wall is finished, and a census is taken. Again, some who claim to be priests but whose lineage is unknown are excluded from the priestly functions until a priest can consult the Urim and Thummim.